The Dengue Crisis: A Emerging Health Threat To Bangladesh Paragraph & Essay

Introduction

Dengue fever has paralyzed the city dwellers with fear. The panic is, of course, justified considering there is no effective cure of the disease and that anyone of any age group is susceptible to it. A bite from the Aedes Aegypti mosquito, the vector carrying the dengue virus can result in death if not identified at an early stage. At present, the dengue situation in Bangladesh is quite grim. A WHO report warned that Bangladesh was at risk and should be alert to signs of an epidemic.

Origin of the disease

The first clinical record of dengue or breakbone fever (so named for the accompanied severe bony aches) was attributed to Benjamin Rush in 1780. That the disease is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes were demonstrated by studies in human volunteers in 1905 to 1906 although the vine was not conclusively identified in the laboratory until 1944. Four antigenically distinct viruses (types 1-4) were subsequently established as the cause of dengue fever. In 1954, a new syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with dengue infection was reported from the Philipines. The first outbreak of dengue fever in Bangladesh was reported in 1964.

After a decade or so, this disease come back in 1977-78 when the International Centre for Diarrhoea Disease Research Bangladesh (ICDDRB) had detected dengue virus among some people in Mirpur. However, 1996 was the year when it was brought to limelight.

Dengue Symptoms and Treatment

Types of dengue

There are two types of dengue fever-

  1. Classical dengue fever;
  2. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF).

Classical dengue fever is less dangerous and very rarely causes death. On the contrary, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever is a severe form of dengue, caused by infection with more than one dengue virus. The severe infection is suspected to be due to double infection with dengue viruses-the first one sensitizes the patient, while the second appears to produce an immunological catastrophe.

Symptoms

  • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF): In DHF, the patients may emit blood with their stool, vomit, and nose.
  • However, the typical symptoms include
  • – High fever, Bone and muscle aches; Cough and runny nose; Burning sensation and redness in the eyes; Diarrhoea; – Rash.
  • The special symptoms of DHF involve – Abdominal pain and vomit (lasting 2-4 days). Severe bleeding nosebleeds, bleeding from the gums and under the skin, vomiting of blood, rectal bleeding, black, tarry stool, internal bleeding. Red renprick-sized spots on the skin.

Classical dengue fever

The typical symptoms of classical dengue fever may be the same as DHF but it is less dangerous and the patient tends to recover from the disease within a few days. There is no bleeding in classical dengue although the platelet count may fall.

Causative agent and vector

Dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever caused by a group B-arbovirus (Flavivirus) and include stereotypes 1,2,3 and 4 (Den-5, Den-2 Den-3, and Den-4). The incubation period is usually 5-6 days but may vary from 3 to 10 days.

Dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever caused by a group B-arbovirus (Flavivirus) and include stereotypes 1,2,3 and 4 (Den-5, Den-2 Den-3, and Den-4). The incubation period is usually 5-6 days but may vary from 3 to 10 days.

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue virus. Dengue outbreaks have also been attributed to Aedes albopictus, Aedes polynescinsis and some other species of Aedes. The Aedes Aegepti has characteristic white strips on the back and legs and known as Tiger mosquito.’

Mode of transmission

The infection is transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito Aedes Aegepti and bites during day times. The mosquito becomes infected by biting a dengue virus-infected patient.

The mosquito rests indoors in closets and other dark places. The female mosquito lays eggs in clean water containers in and around houses, schools, and workplaces such as overhead tanks, discarded buckets, tires, utensils and large containers used for collecting rainwater which is not emptied. The larva hatch from the mosquito eggs and live in the water for about a week, they then change into a round papal stage for one or two days other which the adult mosquito emerges, ready to bite.

Aedes mosquito can fly up to a limited distance of 400-500 meters but spread over vast distances mechanically in various types of vehicles used by man.

Prevention and Control Measures

  1. Prevent mosquito bites i. Wear full-sleeved clothes and long dress trousers that cover arms and legs during an outbreak situation. ii. Use mosquito coils and electric vapor mats or spray during the day. iii. Keep patients protected from mosquito bite by mosquito nets to prevent mosquitoes from fitting sick people and help stop the spread of dengue.
  2. Prevent multiplication of Aedes: Clean drain water from coolers, tanks, barrels, drums, and buckets and spray insecticide, All stored water containers should be kept covered all the time. di Discard solid waste and objects where water collects bottles, tins.
  • Remove water from refrigerator drip pans every other day.
  • The following programmes are needed to present multiplication of Aedes
  • Agypti mosquito: Adequate public awareness campaigns to inform the public about the
    disease and how to combat it.
  • Free testing facilities for dengue patients and proper treatment facilities.
  • Spraying of pesticides by city corporation regularly to eradicate mosquitoes and
  • The flexibility of response, innovation and community participation should be the hallmark of a control program.
  • Strengthening information management on the ground as well as investigating the salient laboratory features of the outbreak is how an urgent need.

Conclusion

The dengue crisis is being from bad to worse each year. The information generated at various levels of the public health system lacks central integration for an accurate assessment of the ground realities before embarking on a national programme.

Thus, the government should realize that a sudden epidemic outbreak of previously unknown or little known viral disease can be catastrophic considering the inadequate state of preparedness of the public health system, lack of investigative and treatment facilities and the absence of adequate technical human resources.

Dengue may be the harbinger of a new reality of infectious disease epidemicity in this part of the world.

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